International Invention of Scientific Journal Prakash Prajapati en-US International Invention of Scientific Journal 2457-0958 Combatting the Obstinate Killer: Tuberculosis <p>Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly prevalent disease and a leading global killer, making it an important public health issue. This literature review seeks to evaluate the transmission methods, co-morbidities, treatment delay, issues with compliance to treatments and drug-resistant strains of TB in order to better understand why the prevalence of this disease is still very high, and why it is so challenging to eliminate. The review will also briefly analyse the intricate association between tuberculosis prevalence in poorer populations and how looking at it through a different perspective may help with control and decrease in spread. In addition, some of the issues associated with the current adopted tuberculosis elimination plans will be addressed and ways they can be manipulated for improved future outcomes. Lastly, I will discuss the scope of the problem and propose some solutions for how to combat this disease, in relation to the findings presented in the review.</p> Siriluk Pichainarongk, Satesh Bidaisee ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-01 2018-08-01 2 08 The Role of Programmed Cell Death 'Apoptosis' in the Development of Inner Sulcus in the Cochlea <p>Hearing loss is one of the most common chronic diseases that affect both young and old but it is most prevalent in old people. This condition is generally irreversible in humans and can be due to the loss of hair cells, which are unable to regenerate. However, recent evidence of some regenerative ability reported in a number of non-mammal vertebrates have given us hope that, in the future a solution may be discovered. Although several advances have been recorded in this field in recent times and ere are still challenges ahead. This study tried to investigate he formation of the inner sulcus located in the cochlea, as it is thought that, the processes involved during the development of this important region are most likely due to apoptosis or another type of programmed cell death, although this has not yet been confirmed.</p> <p>Mouse expressing an EGFP (green fluorescent protein) reporter at the Tecta locus was used. Specimens were stained with phalloidin as a general cell stain of f-actin and this was combined with (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP Nick End) TUNEL staining in order to observe whether dying cells are the result of programmed cell death. Very little TUNEL staining was observed in the developing sulcal region, although some were seen in the associated mesenchymal cells in the cochlea. In some of the sections, Blebbing as well as extrusion of some cells that are thought to be undergoing programmed cell death were evident during the formation of the sulcus. The formation of the sulcus occurs earlier in the basal region of the cochlea than in the apical part following the regression of the greater epithelial ridge (GER) cells. Counting of nuclei in the sulcal region during the formation suggest that cells are being lost. It is not easy to establish whether these cells that are being removed could be due to apoptosis or another type of programmed cell death.</p> Tarfa M. Peter, Paul M. Leonard ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-15 2018-08-15 2 08 Biopolymer Materials, an Alternative to Synthetic Polymer Materials <p>Reports have shown that the use of petroleum based polymers have numerous adverse impact on atmosphere. Most of the plastic waste ended up in the landfill creates pollution with the accumulation of chemicals, only 10% of plastics has been recycled. On the other hand biopolymers converted into biomass with the help of living organisms which later use as manure in plants. Disposal of bio-waste in landfill creates environmental problems, due to the huge production of CO<sub>2</sub> and NH<sub>3</sub>. Since the waste contains large amount of sugars, carbohydrates and cellulose in them, to utilize them in ecofriendly way for industrial use with the help of bacterial fermentation in a cost effective way is the best approach. Biomass can be converted into biofuel, biogas and bio-oil in eco-friendly way with the help of mutagenesis technique. The use of bioplastics over conventional plastics limits due to its high cost but there are several other options to produce bioplastics from the biomass feedstock in cost effective way. The future market for biopolymers are significantly increasing due to its sustainability. The biotechnology of microorganism gives a new hope to bioplastic production could significantly influence the production to compete with current barriers. The motive of the review was discussed and excellent results would achieved which is a way to control marine pollution with the increasing use of biopolymers for the green economy.</p> Ibrahim, M. S ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-15 2018-08-15 2 08