Frequency of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Disturbances in Thyroid Gland Function in Women with Acne Vulgaris: Hormone Profiles and Clinical Findings
Background: Acne vulgaris is skin disease affecting the pilosebaceous units. It is related to the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), metabolic syndrome and dysfunction of the thyroid gland.
Objective: This study investigated the relationship between acne vulgaris, PCOS, and dysfunction of the thyroid gland in female patients of reproductive age.
Methods: A prospective case-control study was conducted between June 2016 and June 2017 with 70 female patients (age range 14-40 years). They were divided into two groups: group one (n1=35) with acne vulgaris, and group two (n2=35) included women without acne vulgaris. The patients from both groups were assessed for levels of sex hormones, thyroid gland hormones and the presence of antithyroid antibodies, as well as for insulin resistance index.
Results: Our results revealed a statistic difference between the frequency of PCOS in the patients suffering from acne vulgaris (18.57%) and the healthy volunteers (1.43%) - p=0.001. Elevated total testosterone levels were more commonly found in the patients from the first group (12.86%) as compared with the control group (1.43%) - p=0.02. The data showed a difference in the relationship between the thyroid gland dysfunction and thyroid autoimmunity in patients suffering from acne vulgaris (22.86%), as compared with the control group (1.43%) - p=0.0001. A combination of PCOS and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) was established in the group of the patients with acne vulgaris.
Conclusion: Our results provide evidence for co-morbidities in patients with acne vulgaris who should be tested for concomitant endocrine and metabolic diseases such as PCOS and AITD.